كتاب الطالب 2020 2021 دراسات اجتماعية منهج إنجليزي صف خامس فصل ثالث

الصف منهج انجليزي
الفصل الصف الخامس منهج إنجليزي
المادة دراسات اجتماعية منهج إنجليزي
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تاريخ الإضافة 2021-04-23, 04:37 صباحا

كتاب الطالب 2020 2021 دراسات اجتماعية منهج إنجليزي صف خامس فصل ثالث

BAGHDAD - CAPITAL CITY

Every great civilization has a capital city. The second Abbasid Caliph Al-Mansur wanted a new capital city. He chose a place along the Tigris River which was closest to the Euphrates River. It was central for trade to surrounding cities and areas. The location could easily be defended from attack if needed and had plentiful fresh water around it. The city of Baghdad became the capital
Baghdad on Tigris River
The first part of the city was the round city. It was called the City of Peace (madinat al-salam). The round city was one kilometer across and all the important buildings were in the round city. The round city took thousands of workers four years to build from 764 to 768 CE

The round city had a double wall, so it was well protected from attack. It had 4 gates to allow easy access for trade and travelers. There was a system of canals that allowed access to the two main rivers, the Euphrates and the Tigris. From the

 


 ART AND THE HOUSE OF WISDOM

During the rule of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid, arts and literature developed throughout the Islamic world. Writers such as Ibn al-Muqaffa and Abu al-Jahiz wrote simple but clever fables and essays on history, natural science, psychology, and other topics. Later writers like Badi al-Hamadhani wrote about travel adventures and intercultural experiences

In Islamic art, the arabesque became popular. At the time, art was not allowed to show people or animals. Artists created artwork and decorated buildings with geometric shapes or abstract images. The designs were often painted inside buildings or in public places like mosques or markets

Calligraphy was an important art form. Calligraphy is the writing of a word or text in a decorative style Calligraphy, as well as arabesque, could be seen in many places in the Islamic World. The Great Mosque of Cordoba had both these art forms
Geometric patterns
Baghdad was a major cultural center for much of the time in the Golden Age of Islamic Civilization. A library was built in Baghdad for the collection of books the caliphs had. Later it was extended and named Bayt al-Hikma (the House of Wisdom). The House of Wisdom had separate rooms for different areas of study and attracted scholars. These areas allowed scholars to meet for research, translation, teaching and discussion. The House of Wisdom became a model of knowledge transfer and a center of learning. Similar Houses of Wisdom opened in other cities of the time

 

Lesson 6 Health and Medicine

MEDICAL ADVANCES IN THE GOLDEN
AGE OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

As cities became bigger, the changes of catching an infectious disease increased. Waste material and water waste increased. To promote good health, solutions had to be found

In the Golden Age of Islamic Civilization, scholars collected and translated medical works from around the world - such as Greece, India and China. The field of medicine and medical treatment greatly developed

Al-Zahrawi in the 10th century invented many medical instruments and surgical procedures, such as the use of catgut to stich up wounds. In Baghdad Ibn Sina in the Ilth century wrote a book including
Medical instruments of Al-Zahrawi all known medical knowledge - the Canon of Medicine. This work was so detailed that European scholars were still studying it 800 years later

Hospitals existed in Ancient Egypt and Greece but it was in the Golden Age of Islamic Civilization that they became bigger and better organized. The first organized hospital is thought to have been in Cairo in 872 CE. It treated people and gave medicines free of charge. By 982 CE in Baghdad there was a large hospital that had 24 medical staff working in it. Baghdad had a hospital for people with mental illnesses. Medical teaching schools were established and some madrassas or schools were specialized in medical training

 

END OF THE GOLDEN AGE AND RISE OF EXPLORATION

The Golden Age of Islamic Civilization did not end all at once. In fact, many scholars debate exactly when it ended. Different factors contributed to the gradual decline

of the Golden Age of Islamic Civilization
One of the most important causes of the decline of the Golden Age of Islamic Civilization was the invasion of Mongol armies from East Asia, led by Genghis Khan. Starting with their first invasion of Central Asia in 1216 CE, the Mongols expanded their territory into the Middle East for almost 40 years

Representation of The Mongols destroyed the House of Wisdom Genghis Khan in 1258 CE. When they destroyed Baghdad and the House of Wisdom, a great deal of information was lost. The Mongols destroyed irrigation systems, which caused the fertile land to die. They taxed the people heavily, forcing them to leave the region 

Other scholars argue that the Golden Age of Islamic Civilization declined but continued over on for 300-400 years. This was a time of great exploration. One explorer, Ibn Battuta lived in the 14th century. Ibn Battuta travelled over 120,000 km in his lifetime, both overland and by sea. He travelled around the Islamic world, as far east as China, where he described the Great Wall of China. He travelled in much of Africa, down to Kenya on the east coast and in the west to the city of Timbuktu

European countries began explore the world and gain more wealth and power from their conquests and colonies. Scientific texts were translated into European languages with Europeans further developing the ideas

 

rivers traders could go to the sea. The gates connected to other cities for trade. The city later grew out from these gates. Outside of the city walls were large areas of housing, markets and workshops
By 900 CE Baghdad was the largest city in the world with up to 1 million people. Baghdad was the political, cultural and trading center of the Abbasid Caliphate. Traders and scholars from all over the world lived and worked in Baghdad, making it a rich, important and multicultural city

The Caliph, or ruler, built impressive buildings such as the court of the Caliphates in Baghdad. The original palace was in the center of the round city with an emerald colored dome about 40 meters high. It was decorated with art work and had courtyards and fountains. A large garden surrounded the palace. The garden had a large garden with a made with water from the canals and a zoo. The court of the Caliphates reflected the splendor of the Golden Age of Islamic Civilization
Baghdad courtyard


 

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