دليل المعلم 2020 2021 دراسات اجتماعية منهج إنجليزي صف ثامن فصل ثالث

الصف منهج انجليزي
الفصل الصف الثامن منهج إنجليزي
المادة دراسات اجتماعية منهج إنجليزي
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تاريخ الإضافة 2021-04-23, 04:37 صباحا

دليل المعلم 2020 2021 دراسات اجتماعية منهج إنجليزي صف ثامن فصل ثالث

THE ARABIAN PENINSULA

The Arabian Peninsula is a large land area surrounded on three sides by bodies of water: the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and the Arabian Sea, Islam spread to other parts of the world from the Arabian Peninsula, which contains two of the holy cities in Islam: Mecca and Medina

The Arabian Peninsula is divided into different areas. There is a the range of mountains in the western part made of volcanic rock that run from north to south and parallel to the Red Sea. The mountain ranges are the Tihama, Hijaz, Asir, and Yemen with the highest peaks rising to 4,000 metres. A coastal plain runs before the mountain ranges. The southern mountains extend towards the southeast with a large valley, called the Wadi Hadramoot

Vast sandy deserts, the Nafud and the "Empty Quarter" and a rocky steppe, called the Najd, extend to the shores of the Gulf. The areas had limited arable lands and limited sources of water, so they were traditionally used for pastoral and seasonal migrations

Oman is located in the south-eastern corner of the peninsula. It has a coastal plain and a mountain range rising up about 3,000 metres. Mountain spring waters feed traditional irrigation systems. Harbours run along the coast were fishing, pearl diving and trade were key features of the traditional economy of the past

The United Arab Emirates is located in the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The port cities of the United Arab Emirates were linked by sea trade to the Indian Ocean and by land to the northern Middle East and Mediterranean countries

The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped land that runs around the Syrian desert. The map shows that in antiquity it included the fertile agricultural area of the Nile Valley in Egypt. In recent years, climate change has altered the arable areas of agricultural land. Less agricultural land has contributed to the recent problems of war and migration by Syrian people and other refugees

Ancient civilizations, including the Assyrian, Greek and Roman Empires, occupied the Fertile Crescent in ancient times leaving ruins of cities and

 

Lesson 1 Geography of West Asia

buildings behind as evidence. Islam first spread outward from the Arabian Peninsula to people in the Fertile Crescent

The area known as Greater Syria is a historic area that includes the modern countries of Syria and Lebanon down toward Palestine. In the West is a range of mountains that border the agricultural coastal plains on the western slope and the valleys of the interior. The Orantes River is an important river that feeds agricultural lands. Damascus is the Syrian capital

IRAQ

Iraq is the long stretch of land that stretches between and alongside the valleys of the twin rivers, Euphrates and Tigris. The two rivers originate in the snow-capped mountains of Anatolia in Eastern Turkey and flow in a in a south-easterly direction, where they empty into the Arabian Gulf

Southern Iraq is a rich agricultural area set between the two great rivers. Silt from the deposits of the rivers make up the great alluvial plain, called the Sawad, where irrigation makes agriculture possible. The modern and historical capital city of Baghdad is in this region, as well as other important cities, such as Najaf, and Basra in the South near the Gulf. The ancient cities of Babylon and Sumer were located in this region

In northern Iraq, known as upper Mesopotamia, raised mountains and plateaus provide irrigation to farmland growing mostly grain. To the northeast of the rivers is a mountain range that extends to Anatolia. The country, Kurdistan, is named after the Kurds who live there and who have their own language. The pastoral lands of Kurdistan are used mostly for raising of sheep and herding animals

MAJOR MONUMENTS OF WEST ASIA

West Asia has monumental buildings and landmarks of historical and architectural value

TURKEY AND ANATOLIA

Anatolia, the large plateau of land in the north, now known as modern Turkey. It is bordered by mountain ranges in the Northeast where snow feeds rivers and valleys for agriculture and by the Taurus Mountains in the South

 

The ports on North Africa's Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts link it with the Iberian Peninsula, Italy and Egypt. In the past, overland camel caravan routes ran from south to north, carrying valuable salt and gold from Mali and Western Africa to the northern ports

The Atlas Mountains stretch from the Southwest up into Algeria to the Northwest near the Mediterranean Sea. The High Atlas Mountains feature snow-capped mountains that feed valleys for Morocco's agricultural lands. The middle area of the Atlas Mountains is also called the Moyen Atlas. To the northeast, the Tellian Atlas stretches into Algeria

Tunisia includes the lands of the ancient city of Carthage and features agricultural areas in its north. The vast area of Libya includes the large Libyan Desert, but also has the coastal hills and valleys of Cyrenaica, along the Mediterranean coast. Agriculture and settlements were established in this region during both the Greek expansion and Roman Empire

In the upper part of the Nile Valley, the Nile River flows through the Sudan, an area that has very limited rainfall. On the east bank of the Nile there are narrow strips of land with arable or cultivable land for growing crops. The western side of the Nile is flat, and agriculture is only possible by the use of irrigation, Khartoum is the capital, positioned in Nile River Valley where the two rivers known as the Blue Nile from Ethiopia and the White Nile from Uganda join then flow upward into Egypt.
In 2011 Southern Sudan became an independent state. Southern Sudan is land of mixed agriculture and pasturing animals with villages, nomadic encampments, and small market towns

The Nile Valley and its fan-shaped delta region in Egypt are rich agricultural areas dependent upon the Nile. In the 1960s, a major dam was built at Aswan that created Lake Nasser. A new dam is now being constructed further up the Nile River in Ethiopia

The cities of Fez and Marrakesh in Morocco have mosques and colleges which are examples of elegance and design. Another important early city was Kairouan, (also spelled as Qayrawan) in Tunisia. It was the first administrative capital of the region as Islam expanded westward along the coasts and mountains of Algeria and eventually reached Morocco

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