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SCIENCE 

Summary & Practice Sheets 

Grade 9 - Integrated 

Introduction to Chemistry Analyzing Data 

The Structure of the Atom Electrons in Atoms

A Story of Two Substances: Introducing Chemistry 

What is Chemistry? 

Chemistry is the scientific study of the composition and properties of matter. 

Types of Substances 

A substance is a kind of matter with uniform composition and properties. It can be classified into natural and synthetic substances. 

Natural Substance 

Example of Substance : ozone (O3)

Origin : produced in Earth's stratosphere

Uses : shields Earth from the Sun's harmful radiation 

Synthetic Substance 

Example of Substance : chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)

Origin : produced in laboratory

Uses : used in aerosol sprays, foam food packaging, coolant for air-conditioners and refrigerators

Formation of Ozone 

 

Impact of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) 

Chemistry helped us to understand the thinning of the ozone layer and linked it to increased levels of stratospheric CFCS.

Chemistry and Matter 

Measuring Matter 

Scientists study matter and need to compare measurements around the world. Matter refers to any physical substance with mass and that takes up space. 

Physical Quantity 

Mass 

What Is Measured? : amount of matter in an object

SI Unit of Measurement : kilograms (kg)

Dependent on Gravity : no

Weight 

What Is Measured? : gravitational force pulling on an object with mass

SI Unit of Measurement : newtons (N)

Dependent on Gravity : yes

Scientists use mass to measure matter as it is not dependent on gravity.

Observing Matter 

Scientists use observations to describe matter at three levels. 

Level of Observation 

Macroscopic Level 

Description : objects visible to the naked eye

Example : elbow

Microscopic Level 

Description : objects too small to see with the naked eye

Example : muscle tissue

Submicroscopic Level 

Description : objects too small to see even with an optical microscope

Example : water molecule

Explaining Observations of Matter Using Scientific Models 

A model is a visual representation of something that is too difficult to see or understand. 

Type of Model 

Physical Model 

Description : model that you can see and touch

Visual Model 

Description : diagram or illustration that explains an idea

Mathematical Model 

Description : model made up of data or equations 

Studying Different Types of Matter 

Chemistry is considered a central science. Scientists study the composition and properties of many different types of matter. Chemistry is divided into different branches based on the area of study. 

Branch of Chemistry / Area of Study 

analytical chemistry / composition and structure of matter 

biochemistry / structure and chemical reactions of substances in living organisms 

environmental chemistry / presence, movement, and impact of chemicals in the environment 

industrial chemistry / chemical reactions used in industrial manufacturing processes 

inorganic chemistry / properties and behavior of inorganic compounds 

organic chemistry / structure, properties, and composition of carbon-containing compounds 

physical chemistry / chemical reactions and the physical properties of atoms and molecules 

polymer chemistry / composition of large, complex molecules (called polymers) 

thermochemistry / heat released or absorbed during chemical reactions

Scientific Methods 

Scientific Method 

The scientific method is an organized, systematic approach to solving a scientific question. 

Observations / Questions 

Background research

Hypothesis

Experiment

Analyze result

Conclusion

Does it support the hypothesis?

Communicate findings

Independent Variable 

factor that is changed or controlled during the experiment; does not depend on another variable

Dependent Variable 

factor that is measured during the experiment depends on the independent variable 

Control 

sample that stays the same throughout the whole experiment; standard used for comparison 

Types of Observations 

Different observations are made to gather data during an experiment. 

Types of Data 

Qualitative Data 

Description : data based on observations using your senses

Examples : color, smell, sound

Quantitative Data 

Description : data that can be measured and presented numerically

Examples : mass, volume, length

Scientific Theory and Scientific Law 

• A scientific theory is a hypothesis based on multiple investigations over time.

• A scientific law is a description of a phenomenon based on multiple investigations over time.

Scientific Research 

Types of Scientific Investigations 

Pure research is done to make discoveries and gain new knowledge.

Applied research is done to solve a specific problem. 

Laboratory Safety Symbols and Their Meanings 

biological organisms and tissue can be harmful to humans

corrosive chemicals can burn and destroy human tissue

electrical equipment can cause electrical shock or burns 

flammable substances can catch fire easily

chemical fumes can harm the eyes and respiratory tract

harmful chemicals can irritate the skin and/or respiratory tract 

radioactive materials are very dangerous 

sharp objects can cut and slice the skin 

toxic chemicals can be poisonous to plants and animals 

Laboratory Safety Equipment 

Apron or Lab Coat 

protects skin and clothing from chemicals and biological materials

Goggles 

protects eyes from chemicals, fumes, and sharp objects

Gloves 

protects hands from chemicals and biological materials

Protective Gloves 

protects hands from extreme heat and cold

Mask 

prevents the inhalation of fumes and fungal spores

PRACTICE : Introduction to Chemistry

1. Fill in the missing parts about the scientific method. 

 

2. ______ objects are too small to see with the naked eye. 

a. Big 

b. Small 

c. Microscopic 

d. Physical

3. Group the following into natural or synthetic substances. 

ozone / water / chlorofluorocarbon / plastic 

Synthetic Substances / Natural Substances

4. Explain why scientists use models to describe submicroscopic events.

____________________________________________

5. Identify the meaning of the following safety symbol.

a. Wear protective clothing. 

b. Use caution when handling hot objects. 

c. Do not wear a necklace. 

d. Do not eat in the lab.

6. Match each of the following physical quantities with what is measured. 

mass / gravitational force pulling on an object with mass 

weight / amount of space occupied by an object 

amount of matter in an object 

amount of mass per unit volume 

7. Select two examples of qualitative observation. 

a. color 

b. volume

c. mass 

d. sound

8. Choose the branch of chemistry that focuses on the composition and structure of matter? 

a. industrial chemistry 

b. organic chemistry 

c. polymer chemistry 

d. analytical chemistry

9. Differentiate between a scientific theory and a scientific law. 

A scientific theory 

_______________________________

A scientific law

_____________________________

10. _______ is the scientific study of the composition and properties of matter.

11. Select the group of elements found in chlorofluorocarbon? 

a. chlorine, carbon, nitrogen 

b. carbon, chlorine, fluorine 

c. hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine 

d. chlorine, fluorine, sodium

12. Select where the ozone layer is located in the Earth’s atmosphere.

a. troposphere

b. mesosphere

c. stratosphere

d. thermosphere

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