بوربوينت درس Personality Nature or Nurture اللغة الإنجليزية الصف الثاني عشر

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تاريخ الإضافة 2022-10-16, 16:13 مساء

بوربوينت درس Personality Nature or Nurture اللغة الإنجليزية الصف الثاني عشر

who grew up in dfferent environments

Lesson 4: Personlaity: Nature or Nurture

Identical

Exactly the same

The nature /nurture questbn is not a new one. Its roots go back at least several hundred years. In the 1600s, the British philosopher John Locke wrote that a newborn infant was a "blank slate" on which his or her education and experience would be "written." In other words, Locke believed that environment alone determined each person's identity. In the 1700s, the French phibsopher Jean Jacques Rousseau claimed that "natural" characteristics were more. Today, we realize that both play a role. The Question now is, to what degree ? To answer this Question, researchers are studying identical twins, especially those

 

who grew up in different environments

Lesson 4 :Personlaity: Nature or Nurture

Reunited

Come together again

Jim Lewis and Jim Springer are identical twins who were separated five weeks after birth. They grew up in different families and didn't know about each other's existence. They were reunited at the age of 39. It is not surprising that they were physically alike - the same dark hair, the same height and weight They both had high bbod pressure and very bad headaches. But they also moved in tie sane way and made the same gestures. They both hated baseball. They both drank tie same brand of coffee, drove the make of car, and spent their vacations on the same small beach in Florida. They had both married women named Linda, gotten divorced, and then married women narrEd Beau. Studies of these and otner separated twins indicate that genetics (biobgy) plays a significant role in deterrnning personal characteristics and behavbr

 


Lesson 4: Personlaity: Nature or Nurture

randparents and/ or parents to

Various research centers are studying identical twins in order to discover the "heritability" of behavioral characteristics - that is, the degree to which a trait is due to genes ("nature") instead of environment. They have reached some surprising conclusions. One study found, for example, that optirnism and pessimism are both very much influenced by genes, but only optimism is affected by environment, too. According to another study, genes influence our coffee consumption, but not consumption of tea. Anxiety (nervousness and worry) seems to be 40 to 50 percent heritable. Another study tells us that happiness does not depend much on money or love or professional success; instead, it is 80
percent heritable! Among the traits that appear to be largely heritable are shyness, attraction to danger (thrill seeking), choice of career, and religious belief

 

It is not easy to discover the genes that influence personality. The acid that carries genetic inforrnation in every human cell, DNA contains just four chemicals: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. But a single gene is "spelled out" by perhaps a rillion cornbinations. As the Human Genome Project (which provided a "map" of human genes) was almost complete in the spring of 2000, there were a number of newspaper headlines about specific discoveries: Gene Linked to Anxiety and Thrill Seeking Due to Genetics. The newspaper articles led people to believe that a single gene is responsible for a certain personality trait, in the same way a single gene can be responsible for a physical characteristic or disease. However, one gene alone cannot cause people to become anxious or thrill seeking. Instead, many genes work together, and they direct the combination of chemicals in the body. These chemicals, such as dopamine and serotonin (which affect a erson's mood) have a significant influence
on personality

 

Read the and next about article Persmality: Nature or Nurture Put a chak mark ( ) by the that you can infer from the reading. Put an X by the other even if pu think ttwy are true. Then, on the lines after each inference, Mite the phrases frorn which yml tie Wlforrnation. Leave the other l"-les blank

The philosophical question of nature/ nurture is an one

The nature /nurture question is not a new one

Its roots at æveral hundred years. In the the British John Locke wrote that a newborn infant was a "blank slate" on which his or her and would •written." In other words, Lcxke that environment alone determined each Kientity. In the the French phibsopher Jean Rousseau claimed that "naturar were rmre Today, we realize that both play a role. The Question now is, to what degræ ? To answer this Question, researchers are studying dentical twins, esgmially those who grew up in different envronrTmEnts

Put a mark (V ) by the that you can infer from the reading. put an X by the other even if think they are true. Then, on the lines after each inference, Mite the phrases frorn whkh you the inforrnatkn. Leave the ottwr Nank

. The environments in which Jim Springer and Jim Lews grew up had no effect on their behaviors and personalities

 

Powerful

Strong

If, indeed, personality traits are, on average, about 50 heritable, then environment still plays an role. Unlike other animals, human beings have choice. If our genes "program" us to be anxious, we can choose a low-stress lifestyle or to meditate or do relaxation exercises. But because of the powerful influence of genes, rmst believe that there is a limit to what we can to do. Thomas Bouchard, a psychologist and the director of one twin study, says that parents should not push children in directions that go against their nature

"The job of a parent" he sags, "is to for a kid's natural talents and then provide the environment for them

 

Read the statements and on the next about the article Personality: Nature or Nurture ? Put a check mark ( ) by the statements that you can infer from the reading. Put an X by the other statements. even if you think they are true. Then, on the lines after each inference, write the phrases from which you inferred the infirmatim Leave the lines blank

goal of twin studies is to identify the amount of influence from genes, and the amount from education and experiences, Ünat determine our identity

Today, we realize that both play a role. The question now is, to what degree ? To answer this question, researchers are studying identical twins, especially those who grew up in different environments

Various research centers are studying identical t wins in order to discover the "heritability" of behavioral characteristics — that is, the degree to which a trait is due to genes ("nature") instead of environment

Understanding words with similar Lesson

The words in each of the following groups have sinilar meanhgs, but they are not exactly the 'l same. Match the words with their defhtions by writing the letters on the lines. If necessary check your answers in a dictionary


 

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