مذكرة Matter and Energy in Ecosystems العلوم منهج انجليزي الصف السابع

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تاريخ الإضافة 2022-11-06, 13:43 مساء

مذكرة Matter and Energy in Ecosystems العلوم منهج انجليزي الصف السابع


Eventually the pond Or lake fills completely with soil and a land ecosystem develops

Aquatic succession begins with a body of water such as a pond


Aquatic succession

What changes are occurring to the aquatic ecosystem in this visual

Sediments and decaying organisms are building up over time. This creates soil that is slowly filling up the pond

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How does the final ecosystem differ from the initial one

It is completely filled with soil and is now a land ecosystem

How does the build up of soil affect different organisms in a lake or pond

.Aquatic plants can no longer grow, resulting in the loss of a food source for various animals

.Fish can no longer swim or get oxygen , resulting in the loss of another food
source

.Nonliving change can lead to changes in the living components of the ecosystem

 

Eutrophication

Is the process of a body of water becoming nutrient rich

Eutrophication can be natural or enhanced by human activities such as farming

when fertilizer and animal waste high in nutrients wash into water ways

High nutrient levels support overgrowth Of algae and other microscopic organisms

Dissolved oxygen levels are depleted, reducing the amount available for fish and other aquatic organisms

 

Canopy fogging

. A low dose Of insecticide is sprayed up into top Of tree to kill the insects, causing them to fall from tree

. They are collected by large screen or sheet

. Wentist study the insects, identify and count them

1.Photos of ground taken from above

. Can used to count and track species of whales and herds of migrating animal on land

. Can also be used to assess biodiversity of Ray' Scim

Transect sampling

.Scientist use a transect line (Rope or String or measuring tape) marked at set intervals such as every meter or every 2 meter

The transect line is placed in or on the habitat surface

.At every interval, the number of and individuals are recorded

.Use in Terrestrial and aquatic habitat

Mist netting

. Fine mesh nets are used to humanely capture animals

. In terrestrial ecosystem often used to collect data from birds and bats

.1n aquatic ecosystem fish and other organisms are captured

 

Forests that grow in temperate regions where winter and summer temperatures have more variation than those in temperate rain forests are called temperate deciduous forests

These forests are the most common forest ecosystems in the United States

 They contain mostly deciduous trees, which lose their leaves in the fall

I .Humid regions with cool summer grow near the equator and experience heavy annual rainfall

.Forests that grow near the equator and experience heavy annual rainfall

. Mild climates with distinct seasons and as warm as Tropical forest

A. Tropical Rainforest

B.Temperate rainforest

C. Deciduous rainforest

 

Types of Aquatic ecosystem

An ecosystem in a body of water

l. Fresh water : Streams, Rivers, Ponds and lakes

. Wetlands: Thin layers of water covering soil that is wet most Of the time

. Estuaries : Regions along coastlines were streams or rivers flow into a body of salt water

. Oceans : The ocean is the body of salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% of Earth's water

 

Stream and rivers

Stream : Narrow, shallow and fast flowing

Rivers : Large, deeper and flow slowly Stream

O Species adapted to fast moving water: Salmon, crayfish

O Species adapted to slow moving water: snail, catfish

Ponds and Lakes

Freshwater that is not flowing downhill makes up ponds and lakes

O These bodies of water form in low area on land

O Ponds are shallow and smaller than lake

O Surface of water contains plants and algae Watland

 

Types of Ocean ecosystem

I. Open oceans

2. Intertidal zones

3. Coral Reefs

Ocean ecosystem

The ocean is the body of salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% of Earth's water Open oceans Extends from the steep edges of continental shelves to the deepest parts of the ocean

O Microscopic algae and other producers from the base Of most ocean food chains

O Other Species include Jellyfish, tuna, mackerel, dolphins, sea cucumbers and brittle stars

Intertidal zones

Ocean shore between the lowest low tide and highest high tide

O When tide reach rock and beach covered by water, when tide falls rocks and beaches are left uncovered and exposed to the air

O Habitat for many organisms anc Cora Underwater structure made called coral

O Most coral reef form in shallow sh and crustacean species tiny, soft bodied animals

O Like Parrotfish, groupers Identify and match

 

Processes in The Nitrogen Cycle

- Decomposers can break down the tissues of dead organisms

- When organisms die, nitrogen- fixing bacteria help return the nitrogen in the tissues of dead organisms to the environment

- Nitrogen also returns to the environment in the waste products of organisms

-Farmers often spread animal wastes, called manure, on their fields during the growing season. The manure provides nitrogen to plants for better growth

 Plants and some other organisms take in this changed nitrogen from the soil and water. Then, animals take in nitrogen when they eat the plants or other organisms

 

Nitrogen Cycle

The process that changes atmospheric nitrogen into nitroger are usable by living things 

1- lightning

2- nitrogen- fixing bacteria

Oxygen cycle

 Photosynthesis is the main source Of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere today

 Humans and many other living organisms take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide during cellular processes

Cellular respiration consume oxygen Oxygen is another element that cycles through ecosystems

Oxygen is necessary for cellular respiration

Oxygen is also part of many substances that are important to life, such as carbon dioxide and water

 

Carbon Cycle

The process in which carbon atoms continually travel from the atmosphere to the Earth and then back into the atmosphere

Carbon In

1. Plants take c02 ( photosynthesis)

. Plants and animal death in soil (decomposition)

.Phytoplankton in oceans to make shells



- Carbon in Nature Tiny ocean organisms called phytoplankton take in carbon dioxide

In some types of phytoplankton, the carbon in carbon dioxide is converted to calcium carbonate. (CaC03) Calcium carbonate is a part of their When the l phytoplankton die it sinks to the bottom of the ocean

Their skeletons become fossilized Over time the fossilized skeletons build up and turn into chalk

As the chalk is weathered by rain and waves, it releases carbon into the air in the form of carbon dioxide

Watch the video to understand more
 

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