كتاب الطالب 2020 2021 دراسات اجتماعية منهج إنجليزي صف ثامن فصل ثالث

الصف منهج انجليزي
الفصل الصف الثامن منهج إنجليزي
المادة دراسات اجتماعية منهج إنجليزي
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تاريخ الإضافة 2021-04-23, 04:37 صباحا

كتاب الطالب 2020 2021 دراسات اجتماعية منهج إنجليزي صف ثامن فصل ثالث

Lesson 1 Geography of West Asia

GEOGRAPHY OF THE WEST ASIA

The modern Middle East consists of West Asia and parts of North and East Africa. West Asia includes the modern day countries of Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The countries in West Asia have historical, cultural, physical, economic, and geographical characteristics that link them

Arabic is a common language in each of West Asian countries. Much of the region has an arid or desert environment. The coastal areas are used for fishing and trade. In the past, caravan trade routes crossed over from the Arabian Peninsula

THE ARABIAN PENINSULA

The Arabian Peninsula is a large land area surrounded on three sides by bodies of water: the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and the Arabian Sea. Islam spread to other parts of the world from the Arabian Peninsula, which contains two of the holy cities in Islam: Mecca and Medina

The Arabian Peninsula is divided into different areas. There is a the range of mountains in the western part made of volcanic rock that run from north to south and parallel to the Red Sea. The mountain ranges are the Tihama, Hijaz, Asir, and Yemen with the highest peaks rising to 4,000 metres. A coastal plain runs before the mountain ranges. The southern mountains extend towards the southeast with a large valley, called the Wadi Hadramoot

Vast sandy deserts, the Nafud and the "Empty Quarter" and a rocky steppe, called the Najd, extend to the shores of the Gulf. The areas had limited arable lands and limited sources of water, so they were traditionally used for pastoral and seasonal migrations

 

The ports on North Africa's Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts link it with the Iberian Peninsula, Italy and Egypt. In the past, overland camel caravan routes ran from south to north, carrying valuable salt and gold from Mali and Western Africa to the northern ports

The Atlas Mountains stretch from the Southwest up into Algeria to the Northwest near the Mediterranean Sea. The High Atlas Mountains feature snow-capped mountains that feed valleys for Morocco's agricultural lands. The middle area of the Atlas Mountains is also called the Moyen Atlas. To the northeast, the Tellian Atlas stretches into Algeria

Tunisia includes the lands of the ancient city of Carthage and features agricultural areas in its north. The vast area of Libya includes the large Libyan Desert, but also has the coastal hills and valleys of Cyrenaica, along the Mediterranean coast. Agriculture and settlements were established in this region during both the Greek expansion and Roman Empire

In the upper part of the Nile Valley, the Nile River flows through the Sudan, an area that has very limited rainfall. On the east bank of the Nile there are narrow strips of land with arable or cultivable land for growing crops. The western side of the Nile is flat, and agriculture is only possible by the use of irrigation. Khartoum is the capital, positioned in Nile River Valley where the two rivers known as the Blue Nile from Ethiopia and the White Nile from Uganda join then flow upward into Egypt

In 2011 Southern Sudan became an independent state. Southern Sudan is land of mixed agriculture and pasturing animals with villages, nomadic encampments, and small market towns

The Nile Valley and its fan-shaped delta region in Egypt are rich agricultural areas dependent upon the Nile. In the 1960s, a major dam was built at Aswan that created Lake Nasser. A new dam is now being constructed further up the Nile River in Ethiopia

 

Lesson 3 The Rise of the Ottoman Empire

THE RISE AND EXPANSION OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE INTO ARAB LANDS

The Ottoman Empire was among the modern world's most powerful empires. The Ottomans ruled much of the Middle East and large parts of North Africa from around 1453 to 1918. The Ottomans became rich from cultivation of cotton, a valuable commodity that allowed it to trade textiles and other goods to European and Mediterranean markets

The Ottomans arose from a group of Central Asian Turkish speaking tribes. In the late 11th century they began moving westward toward Anatolia in eastern Turkey. By 1071, they were strong enough to defeat the Greek Christian army of the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert near Lake Van. The defeat of the Byzantine army allowed the Turkomans to settle into Anatolia for the next three centuries. They expanded into the Balkan region of Eastern Europe and launched attacks against the Byzantine Empire

The Battle of Manzikert led to the domination of the Ottoman Turks in Anatolia and throughout what is today Turkey and parts of Eastern Europe. In 1299, the Turkomans were organised as a new state with the name 'Uthman' from which the name Ottomans is derived

In 1453, the Ottomans led a major assault against the city of Constantinople, overran its defences, and brought the Byzantine Empire to an end. After their conquest, the Ottomans renamed the city Istanbul, by which it is known today

By 1516, during the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent, the Ottomans began extending their armies into Syria, the Balkans, Iraq, and later into Egypt. The conquests required the new Ottoman Empire to create an administration that could manage the Arab lands and Arabic speaking territories to their south and west, as well as the South eastern European territories of the Balkans

 

Lesson 3  The Rise of the Ottoman Empire

MANAGING THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

The Ottomans sent their armies into Syria, the Balkans, Iraq and later into Egypt. These conquests required an administration that could manage the Arab lands to their south and west, and the south-eastern European territories of the Balkans

The Ottomans settled troops from their armies in these new provinces where many became administrators. They were encouraged to marry local women. This created family ties and an administrative bureaucracy that linked these new regions into the centralised rule from the capital of Istanbul

The Ottomans managed the new territories as distant provinces with local officials called Beys. They created an elite military corps known as the Janissaries, made up of young men who were forced to serve in the military. Janissaries were allowed to use muskets and new firearms. This is often referred to as the era of Gunpowder Empires

The expansion required military organization of an army and a navy. The Ottoman Empire soon engaged in battles and campaigns against the Europeans and other Empires. When the Portuguese fleets arrived in the Indian Ocean they attacked and raided the coasts of the Arabian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula. The Ottomans later counterattacked in the 1550s

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